Cancer burden and trends in China: A review and comparison with Japan and South Korea
Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Distinct geographic disparities exist in cancer burden across the world. China, Japan, and South Korea are all located in East Asia. As neighboring countries, Japan and South Korea share similar genetic backgrounds and similar culture with China. Also, in terms of cancer burden, these three countries are all facing a heavy burden of upper digestive tract cancers. This article provides an overview of cancer burden and trends in China by comparing with Japan and South Korea. Comparison among these three countries for the cancer burden and trends could be useful to track the effectiveness of national screening programs and to identify modifiable risk factors. The results can serve as a scientific reference for cancer control policy planning.
In 2017, National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCRC) updated nationwide cancer statistics using population-based cancer registry data in 2014 collected from all available cancer registries. There are 449 cancer registries submitted cancer registry data in 2014, among which 339 registries’ data met the criteria of quality control and were included in analysis. These cancer registries covered 288,243,347 population, accounting for about 21.07% of the national population in 2014. Numbers of nationwide new cancer cases and deaths were estimated using calculated incidence and mortality rates and corresponding national population stratified by area, sex, age group and cancer type. The world Segi’s population was applied for age-standardized rates. Heavy cancer burden and its disparities between area, sex and age group pose a major challenge to public health in China. Nationwide cancer registry plays a crucial role in cancer prevention and control.
To analyze cancer incidence data in Beijing in 2014 and temporal trends for selected common cancers during 2005 and 2014. A total of 144 secondary and tertiary hospitals reported newly diagnosed cancer cases to Beijing Cancer Registry, which covers 13 million residents in Beijing. The cancer incidence rate was calculated in strata by cancer type, sex, age group and area. The population composition of China in 1982 and Segi’s population structure were used to calculate age-standardized rates. Extensive procedures were used to assure the quality of the data. A total of 45,300 new cancer cases were diagnosed in Beijing in 2014. The incidence rate was 341.92/100,000 (343.50/100,000 in males, 340.33/100,000 in females). Cancer remains an important public health problem. Actions should be taken to diminish total cancer incidence in Beijing.